Worden Hall and Park, Leyland

Worden Hall, Leyland

The land at present day Worden Park was acquired by Henry Farington in 1534 and would stay with his family for over 400 years. The earliest hall on the site was called Shaw Hall and this is shown on a 1725 map of the estate. The hall was enlarged in 1742 by Sir William Farington and a later account described it as a ” large irregular stuccoed pile, containing a suite of apartments used as a museum stored with natural curiosities, busts, marbles…paintings… some of them frescoes found in the ruins of Herculaneum…” . These artefacts were brought back by Sir William on the then fashionable Grand Tour of Europe.

In 1837 James Nowell Farington  aged only 24, inherited Shaw Hall. He soon decided that both house and estate needed to be enhanced. Much of the house had dry rot, so a large part was demolished and a major rebuild to the designs of the architect Anthony Salvin took place over five years. It was now that the name change occurred and the grand house from then on was known as Worden Hall. Some of the older parts that survived the rebuild included the Derby Wing (or Service Wing) built by George Farington in the early 18th century and the nearby farm buildings. The gardens and parkland had new creations added, many of which we can still see today: the  sunken lawn, the Hornbeam tree maze and the picturesque follies of the ice house and stone arch over the Shaw Brook.

In 1847 James married Sarah Esther Touchet, a wealthy heiress. A huge wedding was held at the new Worden Hall. This lavish celebration featured a ball for 600 guests and even a hot air balloon. There was a Children’s Treat for 1500 pupils and a special meal for over 200 of the local poor. Sadly James died just 8 months later and the running of the estate was taken over by Sarah and his two sisters, Mary Hannah and Susan Maria. His sisters were remarkable women in their own right by the restrictive standards of the times: Mary Hannah was a keen biologist and Susan Maria specialized in history as well as being active in local charities and the Local Board (what would now be the local council). During the 1860s Cotton Famine the sisters organized relief for unemployed factory workers.

In 1910 Henry Novel Farington inherited Worden, and he was to be the last squire of the property. Soon after World War I parts of the estate began to be sold off, presumably to raise money. A devastating fire struck the housel in 1941, severely damaging much of  the newer parts of the hall and leaving it a burnt out shell. Henry died six years later and a huge part of the building’s historical contents, collected over so many years by the Faringtons, were auctioned off. In 1951 the estate was bought by Leyland Urban District Council who opened the 60 hectare grounds as a park for the public that same year.

North Lodge

There is much of historical interest that still remains for visitors to see today. The neoclassical North Lodge and gateway with its Tuscan style columns are still one of the main entrances to the parkland. The road that leads from it into the grounds is probably one of the original estate drives shown on the 1725 map. It forms a crossroads with  another original drive ‘The Avenue’ which leads down towards the hall.

 

The burnt out part of the new hall was demolished in the 1950s, but the older Derby Wing (or Service Wing) dating from the 1700s house is still in good condition. Although much modified it’s an impressive building- built of brick and standing on a stone plinth. This section used to contain the servants hall and kitchen. Inside a triple arched fireplace dates the structure with a keystone of 1736. It stands besides the Grade II listed farm buildings which include a barn, stable block and a huge brewhouse. These are now used for a variety of businesses including artisans and artists, craft and gift shops and a popular café.

The old Brewhouse

The conservatory that once joined onto the new hall has seen better days and is looking very neglected. Originally built in 1860 its wooden frame is now beyond repair and will be replaced by an aluminium one in the same style in 2018. Hopefully it will be restocked and be a welcome addition to the formal garden it faces onto. The garden was originally designed by William Andrews Nesfield a noted landscaper of his time, who often worked with his brother-in-law Anthony Salvin,  the above mentioned architect of Worden Hall. Nesfield is best known for his work at Kew Gardens and Castle Howard, but here he has left us a fiendish hedge maze. It is very tricky to solve right from the start- it has two entrances, one of which is false !

The Georgian walled kitchen garden has been recently restored and restocked, with plants available for sale. It has a fascinating history of its own and will be the subject of a future post on this site. The extensive park grounds feature a woodland walk and the picturesque Grade II ice house and arch follies (see here) . A model ride on steam railway is a big draw on the weekends.

 

Access and Opening Times

Worden Park is open 9am- 5pm daily. The car park is free.

All of the above mentioned amenities (maze, gardens, parkland)  are also free. A new large pond has been created and there is an excellent playground for children. The model steam railway does not charge, but visitors can make a donation in a box if the wish.

Nearby, just a short walk away Leyland’s Tudor Grammar House: South Ribble Museum

References

The History of Leyland and District, David Hunt (1990), Carnegie Press

https://www.leylandhistoricalsociety.co.uk/ow-2—back-lane—hall-lane.html

https://www.leylandhistoricalsociety.co.uk/listed-leyland-03.html

http://www.pastscape.org.uk (entry on Worden Hall)

https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1000955

https://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/101073052-service-wing-of-former-worden-hall-adjoining-barn-south-ribble#.WWjeZOSovIU

https://www.southribble.gov.uk/wordenpark

http://www.visitleyland.co.uk/worden-park

 

 

Posted in Georgian Lancashire, Victorian Lancashire | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

St George’s Hall, Liverpool

St George’s Hall
Liverpool

In early Victorian times Liverpool was in need of two new buildings- one for  an entertainment venue and another for  law courts. Two independent competitions were held to find an architect for these two schemes. Harry Lonsdale Elmes, a young architect, won both, quite a coup for someone who had only completed two previous projects.  He then submitted a plan to combine the two buildings  all into one huge structure. Liverpool city council accepted the design and the foundation stone of St George’s Hall was laid in 1838. Sadly, Elmes would not live to see the completion of the building. Suffering from stress and ill health, he took time away from work in 1847 and retreated to the Isle of Wight. In September of the same year he moved on to Jamaica in the hope that the warmer climate would help, but he died soon after of tuberculosis. Charles Cockerell, a friend of the Elmes family, took over in 1851 and although he followed much of the original vision for the exterior, he would put his own stamp on the interior design.

The building featured the world’s first air conditioning system. It was designed by the engineer David Boswell Reid, who would go on to create one for the Houses of Parliament. Fresh air was brought in from the eastern portico and then warmed or cooled as required, with the waste air then being released through the roof. Individual rooms had large canvas flaps that could be opened to let the air pass into them.

The Law Courts and holding cells were opened in 1851, but the rest of the building was a few years away from completion.  A crown court for criminal cases was at the south end of the building and a civil court for civil and family cases was at the north end. The fate of the criminally convicted was incarceration at the local prisons of  Walton or Kirkdale. If they were only 11 to 15 years of age then the detention ship in the River Mersey awaited.  The Clarence Reformatory Ship could hold up to 250 boys, and sentences might last 3 years after which some of the  boys could be sent into the merchant service. In 1884 a fire destroyed the ship and six of the inmates were convicted for the crime, each receiving a      5-year gaol sentence.

In contrast to the stark functionality of the courts and cells is the opulence and exuberance of the Great Hall. Elmes based his design on the Roman baths at Caracalla near Rome. Sets of bronze entrance doors for the Great Hall each have the letters SPQL on them. This is the Liverpool take on SPQR which is  Latin for Senatus Populus-Que Romanus  (The Senate and the People of Rome). Accordingly SPQL means The Senate and People of Liverpool. Above each door where we might expect to see the Roman Eagle, we have the Liverbird !

The key feature of the room is the spectacular sunken floor with its dazzling patterns of 30,000 Victorian Minton tiles. Produced at the Minton Hollins tile factory in Stoke-on-Trent, they are made by pressing different coloured  clay  into deep moulds to create the desired pattern for each tile. The floor was meant to be protected and not always be on view. In 1883  a removable sprung wooden dance floor was placed over the tiles. Today this tradition continues, with the floor only on show at certain times of year.

The barrel vaulted ceiling of the Great Hall is still thought to be the largest of its kind in Europe. Supported by huge red granite columns, it would have been prohibitively heavy, had it not been made with hollow bricks – an innovative idea at the time. Liverpool, Lancaster and the Royal coats of arms are displayed on it as is St George dressed as a Roman soldier fighting the dragon. Around the edge hanging from the prows of Greek ships are  ten chandeliers each holding 120 bulbs.

At one end is the huge pipe  organ with its 7,737 pipes  added by Cockerell – originally the largest in the country, it is now only the second biggest having been surpassed by the one at the Albert Hall. To make it fit into place two of the granite columns had to be removed, and these were later erected at the entrance to Sefton Park. It was played for the public every Thursday and Saturday by a Mr W.T. Best for 39 years and originally had steam engines to power the bellows.

St George’s also featured a room just for music. This was the Concert Room, often called the Golden Room and it sits above the civil court. It could hold a seated audience of 1200 and a stage big enough for an orchestra of 60 instrumentalists and 70 singers.

In 1855, the Great Hall and Concert Room were finally opened to the public. Two concerts were given to raise funds for Elmes’s widow and son. It had been the vision of Elmes that the hall be used for the “recreation and improvement of the working class” and for years it fulfilled that function. Many concerts, dances and banquets were held at St George’s over the decades. No one passing by outside could fail to be impressed by the sheer bulk of one of the finest Neo-Classical Grade I listed buildings : the massive Corinthian style columns, the imposing human figures on the panels above, the four stone lions guarding the whole building and the dolphins bearing the many street lights surrounding it became a hallmark of Liverpool civic pride for over a hundred years.

Towards the end of the 20th century, St George’s Hall had fallen upon hard times. It stopped being used as an entertainment venue and in 1984 the courts moved to their new location in Derby Square. For years the hall remained closed and its interior began to deteriorate. In 1990, Prince Charles started a fund to help make part of the roof of the Concert Room waterproof again.

As part of Liverpool’s bid to be European Capital of Culture, restoration of the hall came back on the cards. In 2006,        2.3 million pounds of funding secured from Europe and the Heritage Lottery Fund meant that it could be properly restored. The organ alone cost £500,000 to fix. The grand reopening took place in 2007 by Prince Charles and St Georges’s was the centre piece for the Liverpool Capital of Culture opening ceremony in 2008.

Today there is a Heritage Centre for visitors and  a historical  trail around the buiding. You can go into the Grand Jury Room which has one of largest docks in Europe so that Victorian gang members could all be put on trial together ! From within the court room you can descend the steps to the cells and still see prisoner graffiti on the walls.  Part of the groundbreaking air conditioning system is also on view. The stunning floor of the Great Hall is in very good condition, and those parts that are not are undergoing repairs. The décor of the Great Hall has lost none of its impact and no visitor can fail to be impressed by it. Exhibitions and concerts occur throughout the year and the café and shop are open daily.

Access and Opening Times

St George’s Hall is FREE to visit and open every day 10am-5pm. As well as the self guided heritage trail, there are guided tours available for which there is a modest charge.

Website: click here

References

St George’s Hall Liverpool, Irene Ryan (2011), Pitkin Publishing and Liverpool City Council (booklet available in Heritage Centre)

http://www.bbc.co.uk/liverpool/culture/2002/08/st_georges/great_hall.shtml

http://www.visitliverpool.com/things-to-do/st-georges-hall-p8033

http://liverpoolcityhalls.co.uk/st-georges-hall/

http://www.nicholsonorgans.co.uk/portfolio/st-georges-hall-liverpool/

Posted in Victorian Lancashire | Tagged ,

St Michaels on Wyre Church

St Michael’s on Wyre Church

St Michael’s Church is old enough to be mentioned in the Domesday Book as ‘Michelescherce’. Bounded by the River Wyre, it has been called St Michaels-on-Wyre since the 1100s. The earliest parts of the present building are Norman, as can be evidenced by the door on its north side. The site is even older though and there has probably  been a church here since Saxon times. Compared to its sister church of      St Helens in Churchtown, it has a very different appearance. St Helens has a large open high nave, contrasted with St Michael’s very low roofed aisles. Both churches hold much of interest for the visitors and historians who come.

As you enter  the building, the first thing that strikes you is not the usual silence of a church interior, but the loud slow ticking of the tower clock. The large pendulum hangs down on one side of the tower wall and its hypnotic rhythm can be heard throughout. The clock was installed in 1850 but the rest of the church is much older than this Victorian timepiece.

The Norman Doorway

Original Medieval features include a piscina for washing the communion vessels, stained glass and a mural. The glass is painted pieces that have been cut up and  reused in modern windows.  Careful examination reveals the portrait of a woman’s face (although upside down !) and parts of buildings. The  medieval wall painting is thought to depict Jesus ascending in to heaven, but it’s hard to make out the scene clearly. Mary’s head with a halo around it  is just about visible, but the apostles watching are hard to define, as is the figure of Jesus with just perhaps his foot on view. Another mural of similar date was  discovered in the 1856, but can no longer be seen. This depicted the devil chasing lost souls !

The wide Wyre river flows right by the church

In 1480 John Butler of Rawcliffe Hall gave money for a chapel dedicated to                  St Katherine. This contains a  circular Flemish piece of glass from the 15oos, showing a woman and a man shearing sheep. It has the word ‘Junius’ for June and a picture of a crayfish possibly meant to represent Cancer the crab in the Zodiac. There are similar pieces showing other months and seasons at Rawcliffe Hall and these have probably been taken from this chapel and installed there.

The large solidly built tower was constructed in 1549 when John Singleton left 40 shillings for the building of a steeple and 10 shillings for the bells. There are three bells, the oldest one resulting from this donation and the other two are from 1663 and 1742.

The Soldiers Stones

The churchyard has three unusually shaped graves; two have coped body stones with a square head and the third has a rounded top. Local folklore states that these are the ‘Soldiers Stones’ dating from 1643 when a Spanish ship was wrecked on the Wyre estuary. The two with the square heads are said to be those of two Spanish sailors who had become vagabonds. It would seem unlikely that they would be commemorated with such graves and why such a story should be attached to them is a mystery.

After your visit, take time to go nearby St Helens in Churchtown (click here) to see the contrast between these two Medieval churches.

Access

The church is open at the weekends, and may be open during the week

St Michaels and St Helens have a joint website about themselves- see here

References

St Michael’s-on-Wyre Parish Church: A Short History, Colin Cross Printers Garstang Undated booklet currently available from the church

The History of the Wyre, Michelle Harris & Brian Hughes (2009) Harris & Hughes

The Old Parish Churches of Lancashire, Mike Salter (2005) Folly Publications

http://www.sthelens-stmichaels.org.uk/

 

 

Posted in Medieval Lancashire, Oldest Churches,, Tudor Lancashire | Tagged , , | 1 Comment

St Helens Church, Churchtown near Garstang

St Helens Churchtown

The oval shaped graveyard of St Helens  is a key indicator that a  very early ‘Dark Ages’ Saxon church stood once in this place. The name  ‘Churchtown’ was at one time called Kirkland, with ‘kirk’ being the Viking word for a church.  The earliest parts of the present building are the pillars of the north aisle which date from 1180 when the Norman church was widened. Further expansion in 1250 occurred as  the south aisle was added. The stout tower was constructed in 1450 along with the fabric of the  outside walls and windows. When there was a dispute with neighbouring St Michaels on Wyre as to which one was the oldest and so the ‘mother’ church, St Helens won the argument.

Medieval Grave Cover in the Churchyard

Inside we  see a range of artefacts from the Medieval through to the Tudor and Stuart period. One of the earliest can be found close to the pulpit- it  is a large stone carving from the 1200s of a person with hands together in prayer. It’s not known who this is supposed to represent, some sources suggest a priest, a saint or a martyr.

The Tudor period saw the construction of two side chapels. The first one was for  Roger de Brockholes who endowed a chantry chapel in 1490 so that prayers could be said for his soul after his death. In 1529 Margaret Rigmayden paid for the building of  the Lady Chapel. The choir stalls and misericords also date from this time and include characteristic themes of human heads and mythical beasts. There is an excellent carving of an elephant carrying a medieval castle (familiar to many in the Elephant & Castle pub signs).  To see the misericords you may have to carefully tip the choir seats into their upwards position.

Vicar’s Vestry built with stone from Cockersand Abbey

Cockersand Abbey were the owners of St Helens Church from 1240 through to 1539. When all the abbeys were abolished by King Henry VIII Cockersand for the main part was torn down.  Some of the stone was brought to St Helens and was used to construct a two story vicar’s vestry in 1570. This can be identified easily from the outside because of the very different stone from the main body of the church, and so a little part of Cockersand lives on here.

In 1971 St Helens gave up one of its secrets that had been lost for centuries. On removing some of the thick plaster in the side chapels some very rare wall paintings were revealed, one Medieval  and the others from Stuart times.  The Medieval picture dates from the 1400s  and has been interpreted as  the head of a bishop. This would have been covered up and replaced by the Stuart paintings dating from the 1650s. These have large decorative picture-like frames, with flowers around the edges and quotations from the King James Bible inside. The clearest one states:

These six things doth the Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him:                     A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood,                                       An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in running to mischief,       A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethren       Proverbs 6: 16-19

Something for the congregation of 350 years ago to think about when they gathered together on a Sunday !  These paintings in turn were hidden under  white plaster as further reforming zeal overtook the established church leaders at a later date.

In 1986 these valuable finds were conserved for future generation to see. Lime plaster that matched the original was added around the walls surrounding the paintings. Lime and sand slurry was injected into the lose plaster in order to stabilise them. The original faded paint was impregnated with gum arabic to enhance its colour.

Visitors to the church today will be struck by the use of writing above the arches and doorways all around the interior of the building, probably added in Victorian times. Here are just a few examples: The Rich and Poor meet togetherBring Presents and come into his Courts with Praise, and above the door leading to the vestry Reverence My Sanctuary.

This is a superb church to visit, one of the best in Lancashire for historical interest. Coupled with nearby St Michaels on Wyre (see here) they make for an interesting comparison.

Access

The church is open at the weekends and may also be open in the week.

References

The History of the Wyre, Michelle Harris & Brian Hughes (2009), Harris & Hughes

The Old Parish Churches of Lancashire, Mike Salter (2005), Folly Publications

On Site Interpretation within St Helens Church

http://www.sthelens-stmichaels.org.uk/st-helens-home-page/4561253439

https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Proverbs-6-16/

 

Posted in Medieval Lancashire, Oldest Churches, | Tagged , , | 1 Comment

Smithills Hall, Bolton

Smithills Medieval Great Hall

In 1335 William de Radcliffe acquired the manor of  Smithills. During the early years there would only have been the medieval Great Hall on the site, which  still exists there today. It is a large rectangular stone building and in here the family and servants would take their meals and sleep. The Radcliffes were a powerful Lancashire family, with members acting as Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and ‘Knights of the Shire’ throughout the 1400s. Their ancestral home was in the old centre of Radcliffe near Bury, and can still be seen at the ruins of  Radcliffe Tower.

Johanna Radcliffe was the last of the  Radcliffe family to own the hall and she married into the Bartons, bringing their family to Smithills. Her grandson Andrew Barton significantly  remodeled the hall when he came into his inheritance and his father’s successful woolen business. Today we can see one of the real gems he had constructed- the large withdrawing room. It features oak wood paneling containing small carved portraits of the Barton family, all facing their spouses. Visitors today can see Andrew Barton and his wife Agnes in the carvings. He can be recognised by his large forked beard while she has a flower and a linked hearts design beneath her portrait. Andrew also had carvings of his initials ‘AB’ and a ‘rebus’ put into the paneling. This is a pun on his name and shows  a piece of timber (a ‘bar’) across a barrel (called in the Tudor times a ‘tun’), so Bar-tun or Barton. As leading dignitaries of the area Andrew and Agnes both had  carved misericords seats at Bolton Parish Church and these can still be seen (for more on this click here).

Smithills Hall Tudor East wing

Their son Robert inherited the estate and he is remembered for his role in a dramatic piece of local history and folklore. In 1554  Queen Mary Tudor’s reign had led to an upswing in religious persecution. A preacher, Reverent George Marsh, was active in the area and some considered his views heretical. Robert as a JP was ordered to have Marsh arrested and brought to Smithills. He questioned Marsh before sending him over to the Earl of Derby who was the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire. It is claimed that when Marsh was being led out from being questioned by Robert, he stamped his foot leaving a footprint in the stone floor. Local folklore has it that a footprint shape can still be seen today at the entrance to the Withdrawing Room. The first written record  of this account was in 1787, more than 200 years after it supposedly happened. Marsh was sent to stand trial at Chester. It didn’t end well for him as he paid the ultimate price for his beliefs, one of many people during the religiously turbulent Tudor period.

When the male Barton line was no more Smithills  passed by marriage to the Belasye family from Thirsk. They did not spend much time there, so the hall was let out to tenants and entered a general decline. The medieval Great Hall was used as a brewery and many of the other room were used for weaving. Finally in 1723 the hall was sold again and bought by Joseph Byrom, a Manchester Merchant.

The Byron’s home was Kersal Cell in Salford, a  building which still stands today. Joseph took the neglected hall at Smithills and built an extension to the west wing. The hall stayed with the Byrons for a couple of generations, and the last one to own it was Eleanor Byron. She preferred to live at Kersal Cell and so  let it out to tenants. Once again parts were used for weaving, including the Great Hall and Josephs’s extension became a farmhouse. Eleanor sold it in 1801 to a father and son of the  Ainsworth family who were  wealthy Haliwell bleachers.

Following the 1832 reform act (as commemorated at the Parbold Bottle monument ) towns that had no representation in Parliament got MPs for the first time. Peter Ainsworth was elected as a liberal MP for Bolton. Under his ownership, Smithills once again underwent a period of construction and the Victorian extension we can see today – a dining room, library and guest bedrooms, belong to this time. Mock timbers added to the buildings  to make them look of a similar age to earlier parts.

Smithills Hall Victorian additions

In 1870 Richard Henry Ainsworth inherited, known locally as the Colonel.  His cousin Annabel, a frequent visitor to the hall, described him as “good, solid, Lancashire Squire… an English gentleman of the old school”. In 1896 the good squire tried to prevent public access to the local moorlands as he wanted to use the land for his grouse, partridge and pheasant shoots. A number of ‘mass trespasses’ took place- one had 10,000 locals turn up. But it was to no avail, as a Justice of the Peace the Colonel knew the law and made sure that many of the leaders were prosecuted. The moors remained closed to the locals for many years to come.

His wife Isabella was known for her evangelical faith. She ran a bible class for women and a Sunday school for local children. The Ainsworths also employed a chaplain who cousin Annabel said practically ruled the house, dismissing servants he took a dislike too. Annabel hated him and in her memoirs noted that he had an enormous hold on the Colonel and his wife. The Smithills Chapel services were only full when the pair were in residence – few members of staff or tenants attended when they were away.

On the Colonel’s death at age 87 the estate passed to his nephew Nigel Victor Combe, who took the Ainsworth name. At first Nigel continued the restoration of the hall, but by the 1920s he was falling on hard times as his shares in the bleaching business were returning little revenue. In 1931 he decided to close Smithills and  the contents of the house were sold at public auction. Soon after Bolton Corporation bought the hall and many people petitioned for it to become a museum, but this did not happen until 1963. The older part was used as a museum and the newer Victorian section was converted first to a retirement home and then later to a day care centre.

Smithills Hall entrance

In the 1990s Bolton Council did extensive restoration both inside and out and for the first time opened up the Victorian part of the house for all to see.  Visitors today can enjoy all of the house including the highlights of the Great Medieval Hall of the Radcliffe family and the Barton’s stunning Tudor paneled Withdrawing Room.  The Colonel and Mrs Ainsworth’s Victorian rooms are also well worth seeing,  the latter decorated in the style of William Morris and his Arts and Craft style associates.

Today the estate, gardens and hall are all open to visitors, and are free to visit. What once was the preserve of rich and privileged families, is now available for everyone to enjoy.

Access and Opening Times

Free admission to the hall and grounds. There is an excellent café within the hall.

Wednesday 10-4pm, Thursday 10-4pm, Friday 10-4pm and Sunday 12-4pm

Smithills Hall website: click here

The estate : The  Woodland Trust has bought over a thousand acres of the Smithills estate with plans to buy more in the future. There are many walks on the estate, and you can enjoy the moors that were once barred to the locals.

Smithills Estate and Woodland Trust website: click here

 

References

Smithills Hall, W.D Billington and M.S. Howe (2010) Haliwell Local History Society

Your Guide to Smithills Hall, (undated booklet- currently available from the Hall shop) Bolton Museum and Archive Service

A Short History of Smithills Hall and its Families, (2015) Marie Mitchell (updated by David Williams), Friends of Smithills Hall booklet

The Ainsworths of Halliwell, W.D. Billington (2008), Halliwell History Society

Smithills Hall Museum Guidebook, (undated booklet, out of print) Bolton Museums and Art Gallery, Bolton Metro

On site interpretation boards at Smithills Hall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Posted in Historic Houses,, Medieval Lancashire, Stuart Lancashire, Tudor Lancashire, Victorian Lancashire | Tagged , | 2 Comments

Claughton Viking Burial, near Garstang

Sandhole Wood

In 1822 a group of workers building a new road near Claughton Hall cut through a sandy mound in the area now known as Sandhole Wood. By doing so they discovered a Viking burial mound (or ‘hlaew’) and uncovered its grave goods a few feet below the surface.

Whether the site contained one or two individuals is not clear, but looking at the contents can give us some idea of who might have been buried there. A baked clay pot of cremated ashes was broken by the workmen at the time of the discovery, and both content and pot are now lost. No bones were discovered, and if there had once been some they would have been destroyed by the acidic sandy soil long ago. The artefacts can be split into two groups along fairly traditional interpretation lines- one set consists of jewellery usually associated with women and the other group are weapons usually associated with men.

Harris Museum and Art Gallery in Preston where the  Claughton Viking artefacts are on display

The jewellery consists of a pair of ‘tortoise style’ brooches, a smaller silver brooch and two beads. These have all been preserved and are on permanent display at the Harris Museum in Preston. A tortoise brooch consists of two shells- a lower gilt bronze one lies beneath an upper perforated one. The lower one would catch the light while the upper one has a decorative animal-like patterns. They were worn in pairs to hold a Viking woman’s pinafore style garment in place. Intriguingly, the tortoise  brooches had been put together to form a box and inside were found a red and blue bead, as well as a molar tooth. The tooth could have survived the acidic conditions as there are reports that the twin brooches were in some form of container, probably made of wood and lined with fabric. The silver brooch was a re-used piece of jewellery from a sword belt, originating from the Carolingian empire of west Europe.

The male artefacts consisted of four Viking iron weapons: a spearhead,  an axe head, a hammer head and a sword. Contemporary drawings  were made of these soon after the discovery and these still survive, but unfortunately the weapons have been lost. Intriguingly there was also a Bronze Age stone axe hammer head amongst the collection.

Lodge Road heading South with Sandhole Wood on the right

So what are we to make of this ? Firstly let’s look at the Bronze Age axe hammer head and cremated ashes in a pot. Cremations are common in the Bronze Age burial mounds, but rare in the Viking times. These finds have led some to think that this was a prehistoric burial that was later re-used by the Vikings. This interpretation is plausible, but historians note that it does not look like a Bronze Age site and axe hammers were rarely found in prehistoric graves. More likely that the axe hammer had been discovered by a Viking  and perhaps kept as a symbol of Thor, the hammer wielding sky god.  A second  rougher Bronze Age  stone axe was found in 1899 half a mile to the north which shows there was prehistoric activity within the area. Further evidence that this cremation urn was Viking is that  another burial site at Inskip five miles away  also had a pot of ashes  and a Viking sword.

If it was a double burial of a Viking man and woman that would account for the male and female artefacts, but  not for the fact that only one cremation pot was found. There are female burials with weapons, so it could have been a solitary woman, or it could have been a solitary man with keepsakes of a woman- perhaps his wife.

Site of Claughton Viking burial- somewhere around here…

Viking hlaews are rare in England and there are only 50-60 known ones. They often mark territorial boundaries. Accordingly this important site became a Scheduled Ancient Monument in 1999. The site is in Sandhole Wood (which is private), but the original road that led to its discovery is a public highway and goes right by where the mound once was. The Historic England website map shows the site is right by the wooden fence and so curious visitors can go and have a look without trespassing. The website estimates that the original mound measured 17 metres East to West by 13 metres North to South, but was not very tall and so probably thought to be insignificant when the road was made. Historic England also  state that a  wide but very shallow  ditch survives as an earthwork around part of the monument, but the site has been damaged by road construction, sand quarrying and tree root damage.  For a full description of where to look, see the Access section below. We couldn’t see much evidence on our visit- but it was late spring and the wood was heavily shaded by the tree canopy and covered in bluebells- although it’s still well worth a look.

The brooches are on permanent display in the Discover Preston Gallery at the Harris Museum and Art Gallery. See below for details of opening times.

Access

Visiting the Claughton Hlaew site: The site is on private land, but can be viewed from the road. Park at Claughton Memorial Hall or on the road just next to it. Proceed to the junction and head southwards down Lodge Road and keep going until you reach the part with trees on either side. Sandhole Wood is on your right. Head down to where the wood nearly stops on your right hand side.  Take a copy of the Historic England map with you (see here -note that the webpage allows you to print out a better quality map as a pdf file). From the map it looks like the road would have gone through the mound and you can see the area of the site should be on your right (interestingly the Historic England webpage says that the fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, implying that they run through the remnants of the hlaew) . If you walk as far south as the emergency access road to the M6 motorway, you’ve gone too far- but only just. There is some local traffic on Lodge  Road- expect a vehicle every couple of minutes or so, but you can step into the verge easily as it passes.

Grid Reference for OS maps or A-Z map books: 513 424

Visiting the Harris Museum and Art Gallery: to view the brooches in the Discover Preston Gallery : Opening Times: Open every day and entry is free (see here )

References

Vikings in North West England: The Artifacts, B.J.N. Edwards (1998), Centre for North-West Regional Studies, University of Lancaster

Viking Treasure from the North West: The Cuerdale Hoard in its Context, selected papers from The Vikings of the Irish Sea conference, Liverpool 18-20 May 1990, edited by James Graham-Campbell (1992), National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside

The Claughton Viking Burial, B.J.N. Edwards (1969), Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire Volume 121

The History of the Wyre, Michelle Harris and Brian Hughes (2009) Harris & Hughes

Walks around Historic Bleasdale, John Dixon and Jaana Jarvinen (1998) , Carnegie Press

The Story of Preston, edited by Jennifer Holden (undated booklet publication), Harris Museum and Art Gallery

Websites

Historic England  https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1018918

 

Posted in Saxon and Viking Lancashire, Saxon and Viking Landscape Feature | Tagged ,

Furness Viking Hoard

The Dock Museum
Home of the Furness Hoard

In 2011 in a field near  the village of Stainton with Adgarley a metal detectorist unearthed a hidden Viking hoard of coins and hack silver.  Most of the coins had been minted by the  Anglo-Saxons but there were also Viking ones and even two Arabic Dirhams. The coins dated to the 940s-50s making this burial later than the ones at Silverdale (see here) and Cuerdale in Lancashire.

The discovery was found near a large glacial erratic stone, presumably used as  a marker so that it could be recovered at a later date. It’s been estimated that the hoard would have been able to buy 50 sheep of the Herdwick variety (Herdwick is Norse for ‘sheep pasture’). This distinctive breed has a white face and legs, blue grey coat and can survive unattended on the mountainside in all weathers- a truly Norse sheep !

What of the coins themselves ? The bulk are from the time of King Eadred (946-55) . The  others are either a little earlier (the reigns of Edward the Elder and Athelstan) and a few a little later (the reigns of Edmund and Eadwig). Analysis of the dates they were minted suggests that they were buried between 955-57. Of particular interest are the Viking coins- these show various motifs including a sword, cross, raven and a flower. The Arabic Dirhams have been dated to 906 AD and are so some of the earliest coins from the hoard.

Lead weights found with the assemblage would have been used to measure out silver and so work out its value.  Silver ingots were part of the bullion and many of the items show test marks where they have been cut to check their quality.

The historical background of the time sets the scene as to what was happening when the hoard was  buried. This area of  Lancashire North of the Sands was part of Northumbria and at the time much of the region would have been ruled from York. England had been united as a country for the first time by King Athelstan, a Wessex Saxon and the grandson of Alfred the Great.  It seems likely that  the Viking Eric Bloodaxe ruled Northumbria as a sub-king to Athelstan. This arrangement seems to have come about as Athelstan had been friends with Eric’s father the king of Western Norway, Harald Finehair. Northumbria was effectively a buffer zone between the Saxons, Scots and Irish. After Athelstan’s death in 939 Northumbria was annexed by Olaf Guthrithsson, the ruler of Viking Dublin. This is a confused period, with Athelstan’s Saxon successors Eadred and Edmund also staking a claim to the region. Subsequently, Eric Bloodaxe was back in charge for two more periods but ruling in his own right and not as a sub-king. The first period was  947-8 and the second was 952-4. He was finally killed in battle at Stainmore in 954, which was just before the  Furness Hoard was buried. Clearly this was a turbulent time with English Saxons, Irish based Vikings and Scottish kings all wanting to control the area.

After the discovery archaeologists revisited the site to see if there was anything more of interest. Nothing from the Viking and Anglo-Saxon times remained to be found although the nearby settlement of Stainton would have existed at that time.  They were able to make out traces of three Iron Age huts and an enclosure bank around them. They also noted that in the late 1800s to earlier 1900s the antiquarian Dobson had found Neolithic and Bronze Age axes, as well as saddle querns, just a little way south from the find spot. Clearly this was a thriving area throughout the prehistoric period. Unfortunately most of the site has been destroyed by quarrying- yet another example of modern human activity from the industrial revolution onwards obliterating our ancient heritage.

Today the Furness Hoard has a permanent home at The Dock Museum at Barrow. All the coins and other artefacts are well displayed and can viewed close up.  On one wall is a large picture showing the field and the glacial erratic where they were found, so the visitor can get a good impression of the site. Other finds from the  Viking period are also on show. It is well worth the visit to see this impressive museum which covers the history of the area from the Prehistoric right up to Barrow in the Blitz and beyond.

Access

The Dock Museum in Barrow is open Wednesday to Sunday 11.00-4.00 pm.                 Admission is free. Parking at the museum is also free.

The museum is superb and also has an excellent café.

Website: http://www.dockmuseum.org.uk or click here

Nearby, just a short drive away Dalton Castle

References

50 Find from Cumbria: Objects From the Portable Antiquities Scheme, Dot Broughton (2016), Amberley Publishing

Furness Hoard Findspot , Cumbria Archaeological Excavation, Greenlane Archaeology Ltd (for Portable Antiquities Scheme and The Dock Museum) (2012) pdf

Greenlane Archaeology Website http://www.greenlanearchaeology.co.uk/?projects=furness-hoard-find-spot-cumbria

On Site Interpretation boards from The Dock Museum, Barrow

Know Your Sheep, Jack Byard (2008), Old Pond Publishing

Posted in Saxon and Viking Lancashire, Saxon and Viking Landscape Feature | Tagged ,

Dalton Castle, Dalton in Furness

Dalton Castle

Dalton Castle is a 14th century Pele tower and was owned by the abbot of Furness Abbey. From here he would administer the law in the region of the Lordship of Furness, Lancashire North of the Sands. There would have been an earlier timber framed building on the site which also contained a gaol and courtroom, but continual raids by the Scots in the early 1300s meant that it was a target of burning. Setting fire to property, robbery and the taking of prisoners were the main aims of the Scottish raiders in these lawless times. Despite abbot John of Cockerham paying money to Robert the Bruce in 1322, plunder and burning went ahead. The reason for such open hostilities was that during this century  England and Scotland were either at war, or maintaining an uneasy peace which did not stop raiding from either side. This lead to the building of  fortified Pele towers throughout the region, even as far down as Radcliffe Tower and Turton Tower in south Lancashire.

By  1327 the monks of Furness had a Pele tower constructed on nearby Piel island, which they would use for refuge during Scottish  attacks. It’s thought that Dalton Castle was constructed at the same time, as it shares many similar features (such as the window design). Dalton Castle was not for refuge  as such, but was clearly an important building that needed its contents preserving so that justice could be dispensed.

The original stone tower was built with limestone and red sandstone edgings. For security it had a single entrance on the ground floor leading to a guard room. From there a spiral staircase  was built into the west wall for added protection. The stairs led up to three more floors, the top one of which was the abbot’s courtroom. This had large traceried windows to let in a lot of light, but the lower floors would only have had defensive arrow slits for illumination. At the very top of the  tower was a parapet  with arrow loops. Below the ground floor was the dungeon which was accessed by a removable ladder through a floor grate.

During the 133os the abbot’s power grew, meaning that he could preside over a larger range of criminal cases. These  included those involving bloodshed and he also held the right to appoint a coroner. He would hold an Abbots Court every three weeks that dealt with debt and trespass crimes, and a Full Court Baron session twice a year that could resolve local disputes.

Red sandstone contrasting with surrounding limestone

In 1537 the last abbot Roger Pele surrendered the ownership of Furness Abbey to Henry VIII’s agents at Whalley Abbey. Despite his taking part in the Pilgrmage of Grace (the northern protest against the dissolution of the monasteries) he was allowed to stay on as the Rector of Dalton. In the same settlement some of the recently unemployed Furness Abbey monks received a pension. Eight years later Henry VIII wrote to his royal officers in Furness enquiring about the condition of Dalton Castle. He knew that it was “now in great Ruyn and Decay to our hurte and losse”. He suggested that repairs could be carried out using “what store of stone, leade, timber and other stuffe we have within or about our late monastery there.” This was duly done.

Just over a hundred years later Charles II was looking to reward those who had helped restore him to the throne after the rule of Oliver Cromwell. One of those was General George Monk who was given the Lordship of Furness and the Manor of Dalton, and with it ownership of Dalton Castle. The king also made him the  Duke of Albemarle. From here on the Pele tower remained in the hands of local powerful aristocratic families.  From the Albmarle family it later passed to the Montagu family  and from them to the Buccleuchs who owned it until 1965.

Over the years it has been modified numerous times, with stables being added on the ground floor at one point and some of the upper floors removed. It has also been a masonic temple (the Baldwin Lodge) in the Victorian era and an armoury for the Dalton Battalion of Rifle Volunteers. Throughout much of its existence though, it remained a court up until the early 20th century. In 1965 it was given by the Eighth Duke of Buccleuth to the National Trust, who are the current owners.

On visiting today, much of the original fabric of the building can be seen and it is in a very good condtion. On the ground floor is a museum room with lots of curious locally collected items. These include a stone head from Furness Abbey and a rare  Iron Age carved head.  The building is also home to the Henry Kellet Geology Collection and there are temporary exhibitions in the large room on the first floor. Many of the original features can still be seen, including  a look down into the underground dungeon.

Outside the tower today is a small plaque set in the ground. This gives the words of a charter that was drawn in 1239 granting the right of the abbot and monks of Furness to hold an annual fair from the 31st October to 2nd November:  “…on the day before and on the day and on the morrow of All Saints day, unless the fair be damaging to neighbouring fairs”.  Around the edge of the tower are grown medieval medicinal herbal plants. A few steps away is the parish church of Dalton, and it’s well worth a look too.

Access

Dalton Castle is in the quiet high street of Dalton and so the outside features can be seen at any time.  To view the interior, it is open on Saturday afternoons 2.00-5.00 pm from the end of March until the end of September. Admission is free. On street parking is available in the high street.

Website: https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/dalton-castle or click here

References

Dalton Castle Cumbria, National Trust booklet (1996). This is available from Dalton Castle.

On site interpretation boards at Dalton Castle

A History of St. Mary’s Church and Parish Dalton in Furness booklet (2007). Available in the church.

 

Posted in Castles,, Medieval Lancashire, Medieval Monasteries, | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Platt Hall, Platt Fields Park, Rusholme

Platt Hall, Rusholme, Manchester

Platt Hall, Rusholme, Manchester

Raphe Worsley bought the Platt estate in 1625. He’d made his money  supplying yarn to local handloom weavers from Rusholme and selling the cloth they produced in Manchester. His son Charles was a high ranking officer in Oliver Cromwell’s army,  raising a regiment in Manchester and later taking command of Cromwell’s own regiment. In 1655 Cromwell reorganized the country into ten districts, each with it’s own Vice Regent in charge. Charles became the  Vice Regent for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire. The next year he had 100 alehouses closed down  in Blackburn and is recorded as saying ‘we are catching up all lose and vile persons’. He died that same year aged 34 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Around a hundred years later Deborah Worsley inherited the estate and married John Lees, a wealthy textile merchant.  John took her family name of Carill-Worsley and his son Thomas (from a previous marriage) was named as heir to the estate. The original timber frame  Platt Hall was dismantled and a new brick hall was constructed in 1762-4 and is the one we see today.

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Platt Hall South side

It was designed by the famous York architect John Carr who also created the spectacular Lytham Hall. The new Platt Hall was a three story building with rows of  what we now refer to as Georgian sash windows, all symmetrically laid out either side of the central grand entrance. His plans  were modified by Timothy Lightoler, a former Lancashire wood carver and carpenter. The front of the house would look out onto formal gardens and beyond that was a classic parkland view: the wide stream of  Platt Brook flowing  by, cattle grazing in the distance  and a Ha Ha ditch to stop them straying into the house gardens.  Behind the hall a wooded area was created that included walks, mazes and open glades.

For the interior, Lightoler designed a circuit of interconnecting rooms for guests to move through on what is  called a ‘parlour floor’. Starting in the common parlour, they would proceed to the grand dining room, then to the drawing room and bed chamber. Here they would dance, eat, play cards, listen to music, and discuss the furnishings and ornaments.

Platt Hall North side

Platt Hall North side

Today the  dining room still survives and has been restored along with the central room on the first story. The grand staircase with its large Venetian window is another remnant from the time. Much of the original stucco plasterwork can still be seen and the wall colour scheme  of grey, green and blue from John and Deborah’s time has been  restored. Thomas inherited the estate in 1799 and many years later his clothes trunk was reacquired by the hall. This contained several of his everyday suits, coats, waist coasts and a pair of his shoes that still bear his name ‘Mr Worsley’. All are now on display, giving us a sense of what the gentry wore on a daily basis.

At the start of the 2oth century the family were looking to dispose of the estate and house. It was sold to a builder who intended to knock down the hall and use its bricks to build hundreds of  houses over all of the estate. This would also entail  cutting down  the large mature trees of the parklands. William Royle of Rusholme stepped forward to stop this happening, saying the parkland was a green lung of the city and that it should be bought by Manchester Council for all of the public to use. He worked tirelessly,  organizing a campaign group, producing leaflets and writing  letters to the local paper.

Platt Fields

Platt Fields

The strategy worked and in 1907 the council bought the estate for £59,000 with the intention of turning it into a public park. Unemployed labourers were brought in to landscape it, create  flower beds and a boating lake. They also constructed a bowling green and tennis courts. William Royle’s work was  commemorated in the 1920s by the creation of a  large  seat near one the the Wilmslow Road entrances, dedicated to him.

In the first world war the army used the park to recruit soldiers. There they would parade and also practice digging trenches. Returning injured men would learn to walk again on their artificial limbs in the Grangethorpe Fields area. In the second world war bombs fell on Rusholme and in response long double air raid shelters were dug running along the lime avenue from Platt Lane. They were made of concrete and had mounds of earth put on top to reinforce them. Barage balloons were moored in the park and anti aircraft guns set up, manned by the Home Guard. A steel structure known as ‘Bailey Bridge’ was built for soldiers to practice taking control of bridges.

The role of the hall changed over the years in Platt Fields Park. It had been originally reopened as a café in 1910, and became an art gallery in 1925 featuring 18th century furniture and costumes. In 1947 it became the Gallery of English Costume having recently acquired the enormous Cunnington Collection of Victorian dresses.

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Platt Fields Park Site Manager’s House

The park was still thriving in the 1970s with over 50 garden maintenance staff and a manager living onsite with his family.  During the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s it began to struggle. Due to extensive job cuts only a  few maintenance staff remained  and these were shared between other parks. It was left unlocked at night and became subject to vandalism and general neglect. In 1997  the Friends of the Park group set about trying to tackle the problems. Working with the council, volunteers came in to do programmes of  improvement including  bulb planting and bird box making.   Construction projects included new playgrounds and a  sports zone with basket ball courts, a skate park and a BMX track. It still has many tranquil parts, such as the Shakespearean Garden (see the Nico Ditch post here), wide open grassed areas, mature trees and remnants of an old orchard. Large events began to take place, including the Manchester Mela. In 2010 the park celebrated its centenary and is back on track as a people’s park once again.

Platt Hall is now run by the  Manchester Art Gallery group as the Gallery of Costume. It  has 23,000 items in its collection and in 2006 was designated of National Importance by Department for Culture Media and Sport. Television and theater costume designers use its extensive collection for research.  In 2009 a million pounds of building work was carried out by Manchester City Council to create a lecture theatre, workshop space and temporary exhibition gallery. You can visit Platt Hall today and enjoy both its historical features and its costume collection – all for free.

Opening times for Platt Hall and Gallery of Costume

Thursday and Friday 1-5pm
Saturday and Sunday 10am – 5pm

Platt Hall website see here

Access for Platt Fields park

Open access site in daylight hours

Friends of Platt Fields see  here 

Nearby, just a few minutes walk on foot the Dark Age mysterious Nico Ditch

References

Fabric of Society: A century of People and their Clothes 1770-1870, Jane Tozier and Sarah Levitt revised edtion 2010 Manchester Art Gallery and Manchester City Council (available from Platt Hall Gallery of Costume)

A Centenary Celebration of Platt Fields Park Manchester 1910-2010, Jonathan Schofield (editor), Browns CTP Oldham and Heritage Lottry Fund (available from Platt Hall Gallery of Costume)

http://manchesterartgallery.org/visit/gallery-of-costume/ (accessed 27/12/16)

http://www.plattfields.org/ (accessed 27/12/16)

Posted in Georgian Lancashire, Historic Houses, | Tagged , ,

St Walburge’s Church, Maudlands, Preston

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St Walburge’s Church Preston

By the late 1840s many of Preston’s churches had become very overcrowded, so a decision was made to found a new one dedicated to                        St Walburge. It was designed by the architect Joseph Hansom, the famous designer of the original two wheeled horse drawn Hansom Cab. A huge fundraising push took place, where it was said that even the poorest gave a penny a week. Building began in 1840 and  the church was opened four years later. The famous spire was added in 1867 and at 309 feet it is thought to be the tallest of any parish church in England (only a handful of cathedrals have a larger one). The colour of the spire  contrasts to that of  the main body of the church because it’s made of a different stone- a limestone full of fossils.

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St Walburge’s Rose Window

In 1873  the far end of the church was extended and a curved aspe was created. Today the volunteer guides will tell you that during the building work bodies were found that dated back to the former use of the site. The Medieval leper hospital of  St Mary Magdalene once stood here and for the full history of this lost building see the blog post here.  St Walburge’s has been restored over the years and on one occasion, the statues of the saints were put back in the wrong order on their roof plinths, and their names painted over. All their identities  have still not been sorted out- but it’s hoped they will be during the current restoration. Intriguingly, the statue of King David  has been cut down the middle, with one half of  the king on one side of the church and the other half on the opposite side. Each half of King David looks across the aisle at its missing part.

One of the most interesting pieces in the church is the war memorial. The oak crucifix at its centre is from Medieval Germany, dating sometime around the 1300s. It was salvaged from a French abbey that had been destroyed in the First World War. From there it went to Belgium, until finally ending up at St Walburge’s. For more on this fascinating memorial see World War 1 Cemeteries website here .

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View from the tower looking toward Preston Docks

The interior of the church is stunning, and before you visit, why not have a look at the 360 degree tour on the church’s own website here. If you are going to visit, then on many Saturdays the church tower is open. The views over Preston and beyond are fantastic and you may see or hear the resident Peregrine falcons which live in the tower.

The future of the church was in doubt in recent years, but has now been assured after the Bishop of Lancaster has declared that it is a ‘shrine’ for pilgrimage. The running of the shrine has been entrusted to the Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, a Catholic missionary society. All visitors are welcome.

Access

The church is open every day. On Saturdays their are also guided tours and the steps up the tower and steeple are often open then.

To see more about the Lost Leper Hospital of St Mary Magdgalene which used to be on this site, click here

Nearby, just a short walk away the Site of the Preston’s Medieval Friary

Links

St Walburge website http://www.stwalburge.org see here

References

Look at St Walburge’s Church, (1989) Preston Bessacarr Prints. Booklet currently in print and available when you visit the church.

The Spire Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest website – http://www.stwalburge.org

Historic England list website https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1207341 (accessed 12/12/16)

This blog post also makes use of on site interpretation at St Walburge’s Church, and conversations with the church’s volunteer guides.

 

 

Posted in Victorian Lancashire | Tagged , | 1 Comment